ANÁLISE COMPARATIVA DO CONHECIMENTO SOBRE TOXOPLASMOSE DOS PROFESSORES DE ESCOLAS DA REDE MUNICIPAL DAS SÉRIES INICIAIS DO ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL DO MUNICÍPIO DE JATAÍ-GO, BRASIL / COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT TOXOPLASMOSIS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL...

J. C. DIAS, E. M. N. PAULA, D. A. AZEVEDO, D. P. ARAÚJO, D. B. SOUSA, R. B. MEIRELLES-BARTOLI

Resumo


Antropozoonose transmitida pelo Toxoplasma gondii por ingestão de oocistos, cistos teciduais, e transplacentariamente. Os felídeos são hospedeiros definitivos. Mamíferos e aves hospedeiros intermediários. Informar professores é o passo inicial para formar multiplicadores. Objetivou-se comparar o conhecimento prévio e assimilação das informações sobre toxoplasmose através de palestras aos professores de todas as escolas municipais de Jataí - GO. Foram entrevistados 165 docentes de 19 instituições. Um questionário com perguntas abertas sobre transmissão e prevenção foi aplicado antes e após a palestra.  Do total, 18,8% (31/165) não responderam as perguntas, diminuindo para 6,6 % (11/165) após palestra. Comparando as respostas nos dois momentos pode-se observar: previamente 31,3% (42/134) não sabiam explicar a transmissão, depois 10,4% (16/154); contato com as fezes do gato de 40,2% (54/134) para 46,8% (72/154). Contato com cães e gatos de 14,9% (20/134) e depois 6,5% (10/154) responsabilizava outros animais; ingestão de alimentos 9,7% (13/134) e depois não mais; falta de higiene e ambientes contaminados de 2,9% (4/134) para 3,2% (5/154). E contato com rato de 0,7% (1/134) para 1,3% (2/154). Novas respostas sugiram: água e alimentos contaminados 13% (20/154), animais e alimentos contaminados 9,1% (14/154); fezes de gato e carne contaminada 9,7% (15/154). Sobre prevenção, 57,4% (77/134) não souberam explicar, reduzindo para 16,9% (26/154); vacinação dos animais de 11,9% (16/134) para 5,8% (9/154), sem especificar se em humanos ou animais; evitar contato com animais infectados de 14,1% (19/134) para 5,2% (8/154); higiene básica de 9,7% (13/134) para 35,7% (55/154). Evitar o contato com gatos e com ratos foi citado apenas antes por 6% (8/134) e 0,7% (1/134), respectivamente. Novas respostas surgiram: 22,1% (34/154) consumo de alimentos crus; 9,7% (15/154) evitar contato com animais infectados e alimentos crus; e 4,5% (7/154) outros. Concluiu-se que apesar da melhora nas respostas, ainda há necessidade de trabalho de orientação em relação à transmissão e prevenção de importantes zoonoses.

 

 

SUMMARY

 

Toxoplasmosis is an anthropozoonosis transmitted by Toxoplasma gondii via ingestion of oocysts, tissue cysts, and transplacentally. The felines are definitive hosts while mammals and birds are intermediate hosts. Lectures on this subject were given to elementary school teachers in Jataí, GO. This study compares prior and post-lecture knowledge of the teachers about toxoplasmosis. We interviewed 165 teachers from 19 schools. A questionnaire with open questions about transmission and prevention was applied before and after the lecture. Of the total, 18.8% (31/165) did not answer the questions before the lecture; however, after the lecture this number decreased to 6.6% (11/165). The comparison of the responses in the two stages results is: while prior 31.3% (42/134) could not explain how toxoplasmosis is transmitted, post-lecture only 10.4% (16/154). The answer “contact with the cat feces” increased from 40.2% (54/134) to 46.8% (72/154). Prior to the lecture, “contact with dogs and cats” was answered by 14.9% (20/134) while post-lecture 6.5% (10/154) blaming other animals; ingestion of food was also the answer of 9.7% (13/134) while after the lecture nobody gave this answer; poor hygiene and contaminated environments increased from 2.9% (4/134) to 3.2% (5/154); and, contact with rat increased from 0.7% (1/134) to 1.3% (2/154). Post-lecture, there were the following new answers: contaminated food and water 13% (20/154); contaminated animals and food 9.1% (14/154); cat feces and contaminated meat 9.7% (15/154). On ways to prevent the disease, prior to the lecture 57.4% (77/134) did not know, reduced to 16.9% (26/154) post-lecture; vaccination of animals from 11.9% (16/134) to 5.8% (9/154), without specifying whether in humans or animals; avoid contact with infected animals from 14.1% (19/134) to 5.2% (8/154); basic hygiene from 9.7% (13/134) to 35.7% (55/154). Avoiding contact with cats and rats was only cited prior to lecture by 6% (8/134) and 0.7% (1/134), respectively. New answers emerged: 22.1% (34/154) consumption of raw foods; 9.7% (15/154) avoid contact with infected animals and raw foods; and, 4.5% (7/154) other responses. It is can be concluded that despite the knowledge improvement, further educational work should be performed with respect to transmission and prevention of important zoonoses. 


Texto completo:

PDF - RESUMO PDF - SUMMARY


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15361/2175-0106.2013v29n4p98